Familia Tortricidae

Common name: Leafrollers


The Tortricidae (leafrollers) are one of the largest families of the so-called micro-lepidoptera, with over 5000 described species and a large number still to be recorded, especially in the tropics. Though worldwide in distribution, the family is more strongly represented in temperate and tropical upland regions then in the lowland tropics and probably reaches its greatest diversity in the moss forests of tropical latitudes (Horak and Brown, 1991).



External characters

lateral view of head (explaining terms)
dorsal view of mouthparts (explaining terms)
fore leg (explaining terms)
wing venation (explaining terms)

Chaetosemata present; ocelli rarely absent; proboscis unscaled; maxillary palpi very small or vestigial; labial palpi three-segmented, porrect or upcurved, but when upcurved never with thin long and pointed terminal segment. Fore tibia with epiphysis; tibial spurs 0-2-4; hind tibia often with modified scaling in male. Frenate wing-coupling (frenulum present); forewing often with costal fold in male; chorda and M -stem often developed in discal cell, CuP usually present; hindwing broad, often with cubital pecten at base of CuA, CuP usually present. Abdomen not spined dorsally (Horak and Brown, 1991).

Male genitalia

male genitalia
male genitalia 2

Tegumen more or less strong, often developed so that apical processes or prominences partially replace uncus: vinculum showing at most generic characters (e.g. in Cochylini it tends to separate ventrally into two arms); uncus a more or less strong, hook-shaped sclerite showing parallel reduction in several groups (e.g. in Cochylini, Torticini, Olethreutini and Eucosmini); gnathos of two types: in form of two arms connected to the base of the uncus, fused terminally, and connected to the base of the uncus (in Archipini and Microcorsini), occasionally not fused terminally (in Sparganothina and Isotrias (Archipina)), or in form of a weakly sclerotized membrane connecting basal part of tuba analis and tegumen; socii connected to the apical portion of the tegumen, showing a variety of forms and functions.
Plates of eleventh segments represented by sclerites of the tuba analis (in Tortricinae - may also be secondarily developed in some groups; weak or completely atrophied in Olethreutinae); the dorsal sclerite (scaphium) an ill-defined plate situated subterminally, the ventral sclerite (subscaphium) may be very strong, fused with the gnathos and provided with various ventral projections.
Valva containing important diagnostic characters; costa often reduced to some degree, although rarely completely so (in Archips ); sacculus variably developed; brachiola are found in some Cochylini and Archipini, but are most characteristic of Tortricini; valva with basal excavation and often with well demarcated cucullus in Olethreutinae (after Razowski, 1976).

Female genitalia

female genitalia

Ovipositor adapted to mode of deposition of eggs; sterigma variably developed; anterior apophyses usually connected with sterigma in Tortricidae, usually not connected in Olethreutinae; structure of ductus bursae and position of the ductus seminalis of specific or at most of generic significance.
Corpus bursae irregularly and indistinctly sclerotized (in Cochylini) or with minute spines, spined or dentate plates, or with distinctly edged, smooth sclerites; more specialized signa are found in many Archipini (Tortricinae) and in Eucosmini and Microcorsini (Olethreutinae) (after Razowski, 1976).


setal map (explaining terms)
ventral view of ventral proleg (explaining terms)

Anal fork, if present, with straight prongs; crochets uniserial, on ventral prolegs in a complete circle and in a continuous band on anal prolegs; L-group on prothorax trisetose (except Thaumatographa Walsingham and Ochetarcha Meyrick); L1 and L2 adjacent on (segments) A1-A8; SD1 on A8 usually anterior, antero-dorsal or antero-ventral to spiracle; A9 with both D2 on common mid-dorsal pinaculum and closer to each other than to their own D1 (except Ceracini, some Cochylini and Tracholena Common); A9 with D1 usually closer to SD1 than to D2, and D1 and SD1 frequently on the same pinaculum (Horak and Brown, 1991; Swatschek, 1958; MacKay, 1959; MacKay, 1962).


lateral view of pupa
details pupa (explaining terms)

Maxillary palpi usually visible (as small sclerites below the eyes), head often with large thorn on frons; alar furrow (longitudinal, more or less defined depression) usually not present; abdominal segments 4-6 in female and 4-7 in male movable; two rows of dorsal spines always present on segments A3-A7 (except Ceracini), with variable development on A2 and A8-A10; cauda usually with eight hooked setae and with either several spines or warts, large thorns or prolonged into a cremaster (Horak and Brown, 1991; Patocka, 1998).