Superfamilia Tortricoidea

Historically, there has been disagreement about the higher classification of the Tortricoideae, largely due to different evaluations of the same characters. Tortricid classification has progressed from the earliest ones based on wing shape and wing pattern to a consideration of the entire external morphology, (especially wing venation and head appendages), to an emphasis on genitalia structures, albeit including external morphology. A consensus classification has emerged, with minor discrepancies mainly concerning the rank of certain groups; however, serious efforts towards a world-wide synthesis have been lacking. Significant developments are an integration of biological aspects into phylogenetical discussions and the comparative study of male genitalia musculature.
Tortricinae and Olethreutinae are now regarded as subfamilies only, but the delineation of the Tortricinae is still controversial. In accordance with Diakonoff, 1960, Tuck et al., 1981, and Powell, 1983, the Chlidanotinae here are treated as a separate subfamily. Razowski, 1981b, and Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov, 1984, however, include this group, which long had family status, as a tribe of the Tortricinae. The Cochylini, previously given family rank, are now treated as a tribe of the Tortricinae. Thus, Tortricidae are the sole family in the Tortricoidea.