Pandemis heparana

Author: (Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775)

Dark fruit tortrix
Willow tortricid
Apple brown tortrix

Species Overview:

Adult: 16-24 mm wingspan; forewings reddish ochreous to reddish brown, with darker markings, inner margin of median fascia produced; hindwings dark brownish grey. Antennae of male with a basal notch.
Egg: flat and oval; laid on a small, raft-like batch of 30-50, predominantly on the under-surface of the leaves [Pandemis heparana egg batch; Pandemis heparana egg batch 2 ].
Larva: 25 mm long; bright green with pale sides; head and prothoracic plate green to brown, without dark markings, but cheek spot present; anal plate green or light brown; anal comb whitish and usually with 6-8 prongs [Pandemis heparana larva; Pandemis heparana larva 2 ].
Pupa: 10-17 mm long; reddish brown to brownish black, thoracic and dorsal regions darker; cremaster about as long as wide. Frons with pair of setae; spines of front and back row of abdominal segments 4 and 5 larger and more separated than those on the back rows [details pupa P. heparana ].

Taxonomic Description:


Pandemis heparana adult
Pandemis heparana male
Pandemis heparana male 2
Pandemis heparana males
External characters: Antenna weakly dentate-ciliate, with notch near base; scape and flagellum ochreous or ochreous-brown posteriorly, with dark brown segmental bars; head reddish brown varying to purple-brown or fuscous; labial palpus similar exteriorly, comparatively long and conspicuous. Costa of forewing without costal fold, curved outwards in basal half; dorsum strongly curved at base, then slightly concave. Forewing ground colour deep reddish ochreous or reddish brown, weakly reticulate; markings darker, median fascia well-defined, inner margin sharply angulate basally near middle, outer margin curved outward below costa; outer margin of basal fasciae more or less directly transverse, well defined at costa, becoming indistinct towards dorsum. Hindwing rather dark brownish grey (Bradley et al., 1973).

male genitalia P. heparana
Genitalia: Uncus broad, apex rectangular, hardly concave; middle tip of gnathos well developed, anchor-shaped. Valva rounded; sacculus rather long; transtilla broad, narrow medially. Aedeagus with minute teeth apically and subapically.


Pandemis heparana female
Pandemis heparana females
External characters: Usually larger than male, apex of forewing more produced; external characters similar to that of male.

female gen. P. heparana
Genitalia: Sterigma broad, distinctly narrowing between anterior (cup-shaped) and posterior part; antrum relatively short, hardly tapering anteriorly, sclerotized lateral walls of antrum not parallel. Ductus bursae without cestum. Corpus bursae with two small sclerotized patches; signum with short basal plate.


rolled leaf (P. heparana) (apple)
In Western Europe, adults appear from late June to August, but somewhat later in the north. Eggs are then laid on the upper surface of leaves, usually in batches of 30-50. They hatch in two to three weeks and the small larvae feed for a short time before hibernating in silken retreats spun on the twigs. Activity is resumed in spring, larvae feeding in May and June within rolled leaves on the young shoots or under webs spun on the underside of the leaves. Pupation occurs in spun leaves near the tips of infested shoots or in the larval habitation (Alford, 1984).
In Korea, adults appear from late June to early September (Byun et al., 1998)

Host plants:

The larvae feed on many trees, shrubs and other plants including apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus), plum (Prunus), currant (Ribes) and raspberry (Rubus), Acer, Alnus, Arcticum, Artemisia, Betula, Carpinus, Castanea, Cornus, Corylus, Cydonia, Erigeron, Fragaria, Juglans, Linum, Lonicera, Morus, Myrica, Phaseolus, Phellodendron, Populus, Quercus, Rosa, Rumex, Salix, Sorbus, Tilia, Trifolium and Vaccinium.
Also a pest in tea plantations.


Pandemis heparana larva - apple
Pandemis heparana is a polyphagous species and was only categorized as a main species in the Mediterranean area for great many years. The species is widely distributed and is considered an important member of the oak pest complex. It was recently registered as a fruit pest in the Netherlands, the Balkan Countries, Poland and the former USSR (Bogenschütz, 1978; Dickler, 1991).
Sting and patch grazing are the feeding activities of the summer and autumn larvae, which may infest apple, pear and plum fruits. The spring larvae feed on foliage and shoots but cause no significant damage. Damage to foliage and fruits is very similar to the feeding injury by Adoxophyes orana. Fruit surface damage caused by larval sting and patch-feeding activities is of economic importance (Dickler, 1991).


Throughout Europe and the Middle East to Siberia, China, Korea and Japan.


Z 11-14Ac : 90 *
Z 9-14Ac : 5 *
Z 11-14OH : 5
14Ac : <1
12Ac : <1

Components marked with * are involved in attraction (Frérot et al., 1982).


Z 11-14Ac : 85
Z 9-14Ac : 5
Z 11-14OH : 10
(Frérot et al., 1979b)


Z 11-14Ac : 2
Z 9-14Ac : 1
Z 11-14OH : 1
(Voerman, 1979)


Glypta sapporensis Uchida (Ichneumonidae)
Macrocentrus pallipes Nees (Ichneumonidae)
Colpoclypeus florus (Walker) (Eulophidae)
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) (Tachinidae)