Grapholita inopinata

Author: (Heinrich, 1928)

Manchurian codling moth
Manchurian fruit moth

Species Overview:

Adult: ca. 10 mm wingspan; colour variously described as dark-brown with metallic plumbeous-blue lines on the forewing or dark grey with a purple lustre.
Egg: about 0.7 mm in diameter, white darkening to pinkish-brown; usually laid on leaves.
Larva: pink with red spots (often missing in preserved specimens); larvae may appear banded because the intersegmental areas are pale; anal comb present.
Pupa: with a broad band of numerous small spines on the first abdominal segment.

Taxonomic Description:


Grapholita inopinata adult 1
Grapholita inopinata adult 2
forewing G. inopinata
External characters: ca. 10 mm wingspan. Palpi pale fuscous, whitish beneath and on inner side; head and thorax brown. Forewing brown, irrorate (tips of scales) with whitish ochreous; interspaces between brown costal strigulae whitish, some producing plumbeous metallic stria; ocellus obscure, edged laterally such plumbeous stria, containing four strong black dots; some obscure black dots present near costa and another small black dot near apex. Termen with slight notch below apex; cilia pale, shining, semi-metallic brownish fuscous. Hindwing concolorous with forewing; cilia paler, with a dark basal line.

male gen. G. inopinata
Genitalia: Neck of valva not narrow; ventral margin of valva with small projection anterior to cucullus. Coremata with clusters of broad lanceolate scales.


External characters: Similar to male.

female gen. G. inopinata
Genitalia: Sterigma with short digitate lateral projections. Seventh sternite deeply notched on sides. Cingulum in form of small conical cusp.


Grapholita inopinata overwinters as larvae in cocoons under bark, in the soil or among dead leaves and always under the snow. It also overwinters on fruit crates. The larvae pupate in the same cocoons during the following spring and the moths start to emerge about a month later. The period of emergence, flight and egg-laying is protracted, lasting about 2 months in the area east of Lake Baikal. There is only one generation per year in the Primor'ye region and area east of Lake Baikal. Eggs are usually laid on the underside of leaves and, less often and usually later in the season, on the fruit. Smooth-leaved cultivars are preferred to those with dense pubescence. The potential number of eggs per female is 145. The larvae hatch in 6-7 days and tunnel into the fruit, feeding first under the skin and later on the seeds. Normally there is only one larva in each fruit but up to five have been recorded. Development in the fruit takes 6-8 weeks and larvae leave the fruit in late August and September. Further south there are two generations, flying in May-June and August-September in Dongbei (Manchuria) and slightly earlier in Guangdong. Larval development is correspondingly faster, averaging 16 days for the first generation and 27 days for the second (Smith et al., 1992).

Host plants:

bore holes in apple (inopinata)
Apple (Malus) is the main host, but Grapholita inopinata also attacks hawthorn (Crataegus), quince (Chaenomeles), pear (Pyrus) and various other Rosaceae. Malus pallasiana is the native host in Russia.
It has been reared artificially on some Far-Eastern Prunus spp.


Larvae cause severe damage to fruits of apple and Japanese quince. In apples, the larvae eat out a flat chamber under the skin before penetrating to the core.
In international trade, it might be carried as larvae in fresh fruit or with planting material carrying fruits.


Southern Siberia, southern part of Far Eastern Russia, China, Korea, Japan.


Pheromone unknown.


Z 8-12Ac (Ando et al., 1977)


In China (Dongbei), Phaedroctonus spp. and Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae) were reared as larval parasites. In Russia (Lake Baikal area), eggs were heavily parasitized by Trichogramma embryophagum.