Epinotia rubiginosana

Author: (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)

Species Overview:

Adult: 13-15 mm wingspan; forewing of male without costal fold; ground colour white, suffused with grey, variably mixed with orange-ferruginous; markings grey with an admixture of orange-ferruginous, most pronounced in the distal area. Hindwing grey. The orange-ferruginous colouration of the distal area of the forewing together with the rather conspicuous blotch of the whitish ground colour on dorsum distinguishes this species.
Larva: head light brown to reddish brown; prothoracic plate light brown, darker posteriorly; abdomen yellowish white, pinacula concolorous; anal plate brown; thoracic legs light brown.
Pupa: in a cocoon amongst dead leaves on the ground, or in the soil.

Taxonomic Description:


Epinotia rubiginosana adult 1
Epinotia rubiginosana adult 2
E. rubiginosana koraiensis
External characters: 13-15 mm wingspan. Forewing without a costal fold; ground colour white, suffused with grey and diffusely strigulated with fuscous-black, variably sprinkled with orange-ferruginous; markings grey, diffusely strigulated with fuscous-black, with an admixture of orange-ferruginous most pronounced in the distal area; basal and sub-basal fasciae more or less confluent, forming a moderately well-defined basal patch, its outer edge slightly produced at middle; median fascia obscure and poorly defined, narrow, oblique to dorsum and confluent with blackish subquadrate pre-tornal marking; a conspicuous subquadrate blotch of ground colour on dorsum between basal patch and median fascia; subterminal fascia predominantly orange, arising from above tornus and extending along termen to apex and distal area; a fasciate orange-ferruginous patch in ocellar area edged with plumbeous and marked with several black striae; a diffuse blackish patch above ocellar area; cilia grey, with a blackish sub-basal line interrupted by a variably conspicuous, white subapical dash which extends onto termen. Hindwing grey, coarsely infuscate, darker apically; cilia whitish grey, with a dark sub-basal line (Bradley et al., 1979).

male gen. E. rubiginosana
valvae E. rubiginosana subspp.
Genitalia: Uncus narrow at base; apex rounded, divided medially. Socii narrow, hairy on one side. Valva of both subspecies illustrated.


External characters: Similar to male.

female gen. E. rubiginosana
f.g. E. rubiginosana koraiensis
Genitalia: Ovipositor short; lamella antevaginalis not developed, lamella postvaginalis small, slightly broadening posteriorly (more so in subspecies Epinotia rubiginosana koraiensis); antrum small, slightly broadening anteriorly; cingulum short, situated posterior to middle of ductus bursae, ductus seminalis originating here; corpus bursae with two pointed signa of equal size.


Moths fly from May till July. Larvae may be found in September and October feeding on the needles of the host plant, living at first between two spun needles, later in a tubular spinning constructed from several needles and emerging to feed on the adjacent needle. Final instar larvae then hibernate. Pupation occurs in a cocoon amongst dead leaves on the ground, or in the soil, in April and May (Bradley et al., 1979).

Host plants:

Pinus sylvestris, Pinus pinea ; also Abies.
The East Asian subspecies Epinotia rubiginosana koraiensis can be found on Pinus koraiensis, Pinus densiflora, Pinus strobus and Pinus pumila.


Larvae are found feeding on spun needles of Pinus spp., but are generally of no economic importance.


Europe to Eastern Russia, China, Korea and Japan.


Pheromone unknown.


Z 9-12Ac : 1
Z 7-12Ac : 1
(Booij and Voerman, 1984a)


Z 8-12Ac : 1
Z 10-12Ac : 1
(Witzgall et al., 1996b)