Archips fuscocupreana

Author: Walsingham, 1900

Species Overview:

Adult: wingspan males 15-21 mm, females 17-25 mm; forewings brown or amber-brown with darker markings; colour and intensity of markings variable. Hindwing dark brown.
Egg: greenish yellow, flattened elliptical, deposited in imbricate batches, which are roughly circular or elliptical, rarely elongate. One batch is composed of 15 to 180 eggs (usually between 25 and 100) covered with a brownish black substance, which turns to whitish after overwintering [A. fuscocupreana egg batch ].
Batches can be found on smooth surfaces of trunks, branches and occasionally twigs.
Larva: average length 22 mm; head ochreous-brown with blackish lateral patch on cheek; body pale green to pale greyish green, except for greenish-ochreous mid-dorsal and supra-spiracular lines; thoracic legs black; caudal half of prothoracic shield and pinacula of prothorax and mesothorax blackish; anal shield pale ochreous; spiracles dark ochreous [A. fuscocupreana young larva; A. fuscocupreana mature larva attacking cherry].
Pupa: ca. 12-17 mm; reddish brown; dorsal pits absent on second and third abdominal segments; dorsum of second abdominal segment not extremely risen but elevated, dorsal elevation with a projection directed cephalad.

Taxonomic Description:


Archips fuscocupreana male 1
Archips fuscocupreana male 2
External characters: 15-21 mm wingspan. Labial palpus ochreous cream; remaining parts of head slightly darker, antenna browner; thorax brown, tegula paler terminally. Forewing 7-9.5 mm, weakly expanding terminally except for basal half; costa curved outwards to middle, then almost straight; apex very short; termen hardly oblique, not sinuate, gently arced outwards throughout. Costal fold narrow terminally, reaching to middle of costa. Ground colour brown; basal part of costal fold concolorous, distal portion paler. Basal blotch broad, reaching almost to costa, dark brown, weakly mixed rust dorsally; median fascia with proximal edge extending from one-third of costa to two-thirds of dorsum, dark rust brown, inner margin pale edged towards costa and dorsum; subapical blotch and terminal marking usually, but not always, converge to form an elongate marking. Cilia concolorous with ground colour. Hindwing dark brown; cilia slightly paler with dark median line (Razowski, 1977; Yasuda, 1975b).

male genitalia A. fuscocupreana
Genitalia: Uncus broad; arm of gnathos long. Valva semiovate, short; sacculus broad, strongly convex beyond base ventrally, with a strong, pointed free termination. Aedeagus somewhat bent, dentate ventrally, provided with pointed prominence at the end of the ventral edge.


Archips fuscocupreana female 1
Archips fuscocupreana female 2
External characters: Wingspan 17-25 mm. Forewing rather uniformly broad throughout; costa strongly curved outwards in basal third, hardly concave before apex; apex short; termen indistinctly sinuate. Ground colour brown, slightly tinged with yellowish in basal area and costally, provided with delicate violet shine especially in distal portion of wing; delicate brown transverse strigulation present. Markings dark brown; median fascia slender, almost interrupted subcostally and narrowing postmedially, with proximal edge extending from one-third of costa to two-thirds of dorsum. Two rather parallel, irregular, delicate fasciae in distal third of wing and terminal suffusion near apex of wing. Cilia brown, dark brown at apex. Hindwing dark brown; cilia pale brown with brown median line (Razowski, 1977; Yasuda, 1975b).

female gen. A. fuscocupreana
Genitalia: Anterior (cup-shaped) part of sterigma strong, hardly tapering proximally; caudal part short, with long lateral parts (caudal margin with indistinct median process); antrum fairly long, rather delicately sclerotized. Cestum long; signum relatively small.


Males sometimes uniformly brown or brownish-cream suffused with ochreous in basal half of wing, with well developed, dense brown strigulation and a dark spot at disc. Females occasionally uniformly brown or brownish-ochreous suffused with grey and with transverse strigulation.


The species is univoltine with a prolonged embryonic diapause at the so-called pyriform stage for hibernation. In colder areas, eggs become diapause-free late in winter, going to gradual development when field temperature exceeds the subzero level. Hatching begins immediately before apple blooming as in Archips endoi, but is delayed some days on the cooler upper part of trees. The hatching period is advanced from mid May in cooler north to mid April in the warmer south. The larval stage lasts 40 to 50 days, during which the larva passes 5 to 6 instars. Larvae feed on flower buds, and move to new leaves when matured. They pupate between spun leaves or within rolled leaves. The pupal stage lasts 10 days to 2 weeks.
Female adults copulate at dawn, on the second or third day after emergence, and begin oviposition that night close to their emergence sites. As a rule, they repeat oviposition every 2 days. Over 40 percent of the total amount of eggs are deposited during the first oviposition.
The flight period changes geographically: moths fly in August in Primorsk, in late July and early August on the South Kuril Islands, mainly during July in Hokkaido, from mid June to mid July in North-Central Honshu and South-Central Korea, and from late May or early June in further south.

Host plants:

Almost all of broad-leafed deciduous trees are accepted. Shrubs and dicotyledonous herbs are also attacked by dispersed larvae. The species is abundant in orchards, gardens, mulberry plantations, young secondary woods and in densely grown chestnut stands.
Some records from literature:
Acer spp., Alnus spp., Betula platyphylla, Castanea crenata, Cydonia oblonga, Diospyros kaki, Erigeron annus, Fragaria ananassa, Glycine max, Juglans sp., Malus baccata, Malus pumila, Morus bombycis, Phaseolus sp., Prunus persica, Prunus mume, Prunus yedoensis, Prunus salicina, Prunus armeniaca var. ansu, Prunus sargentii, Pyrus simoni, Quercus mongolica, Quercus serrata, Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, Ribes grossularia, Rosa multiflora, Rubus sp., Salix spp., Sorbus spp., Ulmus spp.


damage to young apple fruit
rolled young apple leaves
damaged apple blossom
Hatchlings feed into and web unfolding flower buds. Larvae of later instars feed at the base of pistils and often into ovules, and also spin filaments and petals together. Injured buds can be recognized by the retention of webbed petals after petals have been shed. Mature larvae spin leaves, flowers and young fruits as a whole, and feed preferably on fruits. Many attacked young fruits drop off or are malformed, often with deep hollows. The species has been an important pest of apple, pear, cherry, plum, apricot and mulberry.


Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Southern Kuril; Primorsk; Korea.


Pheromone unknown.


Z 11-14Ac : 8
E 11-14Ac : 2 (Ando et al., 1981)


of egg:
Trichogramma sp. (Trichogrammatidae)

of larva:
Gregopimpla kuwanae (Viereck) (Ichneumonidae)
Acropimpla persimilis (Ashmead) (Ichneumonidae)
Lissonota saturator (Thunberg) (Ichneumonidae)
Campoplex homonae (Sonan) (Ichneumonidae)
Sinophorus exartemae (Uchida) (Ichneumonidae)
Tranosema arenicola albula Momoi (Ichneumonidae)
Trieces homonae Kusigemati
Macrocentrus mandibularis Watanabe (Braconidae)
Macrocentrus adoxophyesi Minamikawa (Braconidae)
Apanteles adoxophyesi Minamikawa (Braconidae)
Pseudoperichaeta insidiosa Robineau-Desvoidy (Tachinidae)

Of pupa:
Itoplectis altenans spectabilis (Matsumura) (Ichneumonidae)
Coccogomimus disparis (Viereck)
Triclistus globulipes (Desvigens) (Ichneumonidae)

Besides parasites, birds are good predators for larvae of final instar, pupae and occasionally egg masses during overwintering period.

Besides Archips xylosteana, Archips endoi, Archips audax and Archips breviplicana, which are already dealt with elsewhere, following species of Archips have been recorded from apple in Japan.

1. Archips nigricaudana (Walsingham)

Archips nigricaudana male; male genitalia A. nigricaudana ; female gen. A. nigricaudana
In forewings, the median fasciae do not reach the costa.
Genitalia: Like in Archips fuscocupreana the uncus of the male genitalia broadens terminally. The ventral edge of the valva is less convex.
The cestum of the female genitalia is also long, but the distal part of the sterigma is longer and the anterior, cup-shaped part shorter. The antrum is shorter.

Host plants are Malus pumila, Pyrus simoni, Morus sp., Castanopsis sp., Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica, Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, Lespedeze bicolor, Corylus heterophylla, Diospyros kaki, Abies holophylla and Salix sp.
Distribution: Russia: Primorsk; Korea; Japan.
Host plants are Malus pumila, Sorbus commixta, Prunus salicina, Prunus sargentii, Prunus yedoensis, Chloranthus serratus, Houttuynia cordata, Abies firma and Akebia quinata.
Distribution: Japan.

2. Archips ingentana (Christoph)

Archips ingentana male; Archips ingentana male; male genitalia A. ingentana ; female gen. A. ingentana
Apex of forewings in males more prominent than in Archips fuscocupreana; subapical blotch not expanding towards termen.
Genitalia: In this species, the uncus of the male genitalia is also more slender than in Archips fuscocupreana, and the sacculus is provided with a median thorn. It can be easily separated from Archips fuscocupreana and Archips nigricaudana by the spined termination of the sacculus.
The cestum of the female genitalia does not reach to the middle of the ductus bursae. The sterigma is large and has a strong median process and large, well sclerotized distal lobes. The cup-shaped portion of the sterigma is constricted medially.

Host plants are Abies firma, Acer, Artemisia, Cerasus, Disporum similacinum, Filipendula, Fragaria, Houttuynia cordata, Lonicera, Malus pumila, Petasites japonicus, Polygonum , Prunus salicina, Pyrus simoni, Quercus serrata, Urtica thunbergia.
Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu; N. Korea; China: Manchuria; Russia: S. Kuril Is., Primorsk, S. Sakhalin.