Archips endoi

Author: Yasuda, 1975

Species Overview:

Adult: wingspan males 20-23 mm, females 23-26 mm; forewings ochreous or pale cream-brown with brownish suffusion basally and brown markings; median fascia atrophied at costa in males; basal blotch absent in females. Hindwings greyish brown.
Egg: deposited in elongate subquadrate or elliptical batches of 13 to 83 eggs (average about 40); egg mass imbricate, whitish in spring. On trunks and major branches, mainly along narrow depressions at wrinkled bases of branches, and unlike Archips fuscocupreana, never on smooth surfaces and twigs.
Larva: average length 23 mm, body uniformly dull black; head black; thoracic legs, pinacula, prothoracic shield and anal shield shiny black.
Pupa: ca. 12-15 mm; blackish brown; dorsal pits absent on second and third abdominal segments; dorsum of second abdominal segment extremely risen; a deep fossa present along the anterior margin on the second and third abdominal segments [details pupa Archips endoi ].

Taxonomic Description:


Archips endoi male 1
Archips endoi male 2
External characters: Wingspan 20-23 mm. Head, antenna, labial palpus and thorax ochreous brown; abdomen without pits, but with a large conspicuous terminal tuft. Forewing distinctly expanding terminally; costa curved throughout, weakly concave subapically; apex somewhat prominent; termen hardly sinuate, then convex. Costal fold very long, reaching to the subapical spot. Ground colour ochreous with brownish suffusion basally. Projecting scales on base of dorsum light ochreous brown. Markings generally not very conspicuous throughout. Basal blotch dark brownish, subsquare in shape; median fascia very broad, atrophied at costa, rounded outwardly both in anterior and posterior edges; subapical blotch elongate, subtriangular, protruding in a curved line towards end of termen. Cilia ochreous, fuscous at apex. Hindwing fuscous; cilia light ochreous (Razowski, 1977; Yasuda, 1975b).

male genitalia A. endoi
Genitalia: Tegumen fairly broad; uncus somewhat broader apically, not rounded; arm of gnathos moderate; socii weak. Valva ovate, tapering somewhat terminally; sacculus broad with a rather short, rounded apical termination. Aedeagus slender, slightly curved, with latero-dorsal process.


Archips endoi female
External characters: Larger than male (wingspan 23-26 mm). Forewing rather uniformly broad throughout; costa strongly curved outwards basally, then almost straight; apex prominent; termen somewhat sinuate. Ground colour fuscous, with darker fuscous transverse strigulation mainly in the posterior half of wing and several striae costally. Markings darker than ground colour; basal blotch reduced or absent; median fascia from before middle of costa to before tornus; narrow costally, very strongly expanding beyond costal quarter, convex in middle of the anterior and posterior edges; terminal markings weaker than in the male. Cilia brownish, lighter and more ochreous towards tornus. Hindwing brownish or brownish grey; paler or yellowish apically; cilia pale yellow (Razowski, 1977; Yasuda, 1975b).

female gen. A. endoi
Genitalia: Caudal part of sterigma short, anterior (cup-shaped) part long, tapering proximally, and rounded distally, fused with antrum. Ductus bursae long with long cestum; signum proportionately small.


Archips endoi is an univoltine species. Moths fly from late June until early August. Females deposit their eggs on trunks and major branches of the host plant, mainly along narrow depressions at wrinkled bases of branches. The eggs then hibernate; hatching begins immediately before apple blooming in mid May in central Hokkaido and in late April in Northern Honshu. Larval development lasts about 7 weeks, during which the larva passes 5 instars until pupation within the larval habitation. Moths emerge about 2 weeks later, during the daytime and particularly in the afternoon. Oviposition begins 1 or 2 days after emergence.

Host plants:

Alnus japonica, Malus bacatta, Malus pumila, Pyrus simoni, Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Salix sp.


Hatchlings feed on reverse side of expanded leaves under the webs lined along leaf veins. They move to new leaves after the second moult, roll the leaves longitudinally, and feed internally. Larvae tend to live in upper part of crown, and to prefer young shoots. No attacks on flowers and fruits are observed. Local outbreaks frequented on apple and pear during 1950s in Hokkaido and the northernmost district of Honshu.


Endemic in Japan: Hokkaido.


Pheromone unknown.

Besides Archips xylosteana, Archips breviplicana, Archips audax and Archips fuscocupreana, which are already dealt with elsewhere, the following species of Archips have been recorded from apple in Japan.

1. Archips nigricaudana (Walsingham)

Archips nigricaudana male; male genitalia A. nigricaudana ; female gen. A. nigricaudana
Moths are generally lighter in colour than those of Archips endoi.
Genitalia: The uncus of the male genitalia in this species broadens terminally, and is rounded apically. In Archips endoi, the uncus hardly broadens, and is not rounded apically. The free termination of the sacculus is smaller than in Archips endoi. The aedeagus is provided with a minute dent ventro-terminally. In Archips endoi, the aedeagus is provided with a long latero-dorsal process.
The cestum of the female genitalia is also long, but the sterigma has a fairly long dorsal part with a small median process, the cup-shaped portion is much smaller than in Archips endoi.

Host plants are Malus pumila, Pyrus simony, Morus sp., Castanopsis sp., Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica, Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, Lespedeze bicolor, Corylus heterophylla, Diospyros kaki, Abies holophylla and Salix sp.
Distribution: Russia: Primorsk; Korea; Japan.

2. Archips ingentana (Christoph)

Archips ingentana male; Archips ingentana female; male genitalia A. ingentana ; female gen. A. ingentana
Colour of forewing markings varies; termen more distinctly sinuate in males compared to Archips endoi; median fascia reaches the costa in both males and females.
Genitalia: In this species, the sacculus is provided with a median thorn. It can be easily separated from Archips endoi, as well as from Archips nigricaudana by the spined termination of the sacculus.
The cestum of the female genitalia does not reach to the middle of the ductus bursae. The sterigma is large with a strong median process and large, well sclerotized distal lobes.

Host plants are Abies firma, Acer, Artemisia, Cerasus, Disporum similacinum, Filipendula, Fragaria, Houttuynia cordata, Lonicera, Malus pumila, Petasites japonicus, Polygonum, Prunus salicina, Pyrus simony, Quercus serrata, Urtica thunbergia.
Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu; N. Korea; China: Manchuria; Russia: S. Kuril Is., Primorsk, S. Sakhalin.