Archips breviplicana

Author: Walsingham, 1900

Asiatic leafroller

Species Overview:

Adult: wingspan 17-23 mm in males, 20-28 mm in females; forewings ochreous-cream with pinkish hue, transverse brownish strigulation and dark brown or blackish markings. Hindwing greyish brown with cream (males) or orange (females) costal half.
Egg: pale green, turning darker during development; flattened elliptical. Egg mass imbricate, elliptical, composed of more than 200 eggs at the first oviposition. Eggs are deposited on the underside of a fully expanded leaf [Archips breviplicana egg batch].
Larva: average length 23 mm; head blackish brown; body dark green or greyish green; paler anteriorly; prothoracic shield blackish brown; meso- and metathoracic legs pale ochreous; pinacula pale green and spiracles blackish brown [Archips breviplicana larva].
Pupa: ca. 11-16 mm; greenish brown; caudal part of most abdominal segments conspicuously granulate or echinate; metanotum without a prominent carina on the meson; frons with two pairs of setae; a pair of dorsal pits present on the second and third abdominal segments; flanged plate on abdominal segments 4-7 pointed caudad at the dorsimeson [details pupa A. breviplicana ].

Taxonomic Description:


Archips breviplicana male 1
Archips breviplicana male 2
External characters: 17-23 mm wingspan. Labial palpus ochreous-cream, mixed with darker scales; head ochreous-brown, antenna greyer, thorax browner; abdomen brownish grey with cream apical tuft. Forewing somewhat expanding terminally (variable) with costa curved outwards in basal half, then straight or hardly concave subterminally; apex short, weakly protruding costally; termen gently concave postapically. Costal fold slender, reaching to beyond one-quarter of costa. Ground colour ochreous-cream slightly mixed with pinkish or rust-grey; with very delicate transverse brownish strigulation, often suffused grey in postmedian or distal portions costally. Markings dark, deep brown or blackish, occasionally finely edged with cream, consisting of a subtriangular basal blotch terminating in middle of wing or producing a narrow stripe reaching costa; median fascia with inner margin extending from the end of costal fold; anterior portion well developed, atrophied distally at dorsum; subapical blotch paler, extending from mid-costa, diffuse distally; subterminal marking absent; apex or termen in apical area marked with brown. Cilia concolorous with ground colour, rusty brown terminally, brown in apical portion, pale at tornus. Hindwing pale brownish basally and anally, orange to vein CuA2, cream costally. Cilia cream, greyer beyond CuA1 with brownish basal line, mixed orange in apical area (Razowski, 1977; Yasuda, 1975b).

male genitalia A. breviplicana
Genitalia: Uncus fairly strong, socius vestigial; sacculus with rather short, densely spined free termination and less numerous spines reaching to middle of its length. Aedeagus gently bent beyond coecum penis, minutely dentate, especially ventrally, terminating into sharp tooth directed to the left and a smaller subterminal tooth rather ventro-laterally. Ca 20 cornuti in vesica.


Archips breviplicana female 1
Archips breviplicana female 2
External characters: Larger than male (20-28 mm wingspan); forewing without costal fold; costa distinctly curved outwards at base, slightly concave beyond middle; apex elongate, prominent costally; termen distinctly concave postapically. Ground colour pale brownish mixed with cream, ochreous or grey, distinctly strigulated with brownish. Markings indistinct, pale brownish with hue similar to that of the ground colour, consisting of a weak basal suffusion dorsally, a more or less complete median fascia and a subapical blotch; apex or termen to M 2 marked with brown; cilia somewhat darker than ground colour. Hindwing brownish with costal and distal portions orange; cilia variable usually brownish, mixed orange in distal area of wing (Razowski, 1977; Yasuda, 1975b).

female gen. A. breviplicana
Genitalia: Distal part of sterigma large with well-developed median process; distal lobes fairly well sclerotized; anterior part of sterigma short, constricted medially. Antrum very large, well sclerotized, somewhat curved at base to the right; ductus bursae fairly short with cestum reaching to beyond one-third of its length; signum large, distal part of the basal sclerite very short.


In the males, the intensity of the ground colour and completeness of the forewing markings are distinctly variable. The median fascia often connects to the subapical blotch with a grey suffusion, the latter occasionally atrophying. Females are less variable.


The species is polyvoltine. Larvae hibernate, the diapause being induced by the short day-length in autumn. Overwintering larvae spin whitish hibernacula under flakes of bark or under leaf pieces webbed onto branches. They become active soon after the sprouting of apple buds in spring, and feed in these buds. After 5 to 6 weeks they move to new leaves for pupation. The pupal period lasts 8 to 12 days. Non-diapause generation larvae pass 5 to 8 instars, and require 20 to 35 days for full development.
The species passes 2 annual generations with major flight periods in late June to mid July and mid August to mid September in the north of its distribution. In the southern part of its distribution, there are 3 generations yearly, which may overlap. Records from southern Korea suggest flight peaks in early June, mid to late July and mid September. Females deposited their eggs in large batches on the underside of fully expanded leaves. When hatching occurs after the end of August, the larvae undergo diapause at the 3rd or 4th instar. They experience a moult with little growth before becoming dormant in a hibernacula.

Host plants:

In addition to Rosaceous fruit trees, more than 10 species of wild deciduous trees have been recorded as the host, but larval occurrence on them is sporadic. An exception is the Alnus-Salix association on riverside, where the species occurs consistently. Occasional damages on berries and a few herbaceous plants were also recorded.

Records from literature:
Alnus japonica , Crataegus sp., Cydonia oblonga, Elaeagnus sp., Fragaria ananassa, Fraxinus lanuginosa, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Juglans mandshurica sieboldiana, Malus pumila , Malus baccata, Morus bombycis, Populus nigra , Prunus persica , Prunus x yedoensis, Prunus salicina, Prunus armenica, Pyrus simoni, Quercus mongolica, Ribes grossularia, Rosa sp., Rubus sp., Salix , Triticum aestivum, Ulmus propinqua.


Archips breviplicana damage to apple bud
In spring, the larvae resume activity and feed in unfolding buds and also spin leaves irregularly. Attacks on flowers and young fruits are not so serious as is the case of Archips fuscocupreana. New hatchlings feed on lower surface of leaves under liner webs along major leaf veins. Older larvae (beyond the second instar) roll a single leaf or spin a few leaves together. They also make shallow feeding scars on fruits in contact with leaves.
The species was one of the predominant leafrollers on apple, not only in Japan, but also in continental areas, before organo-phosphorous insecticides were introduced. Today, the occurrence on apple has become rare in most areas.


Korea, China, Primorsk, Amur territory, S. Sakhalin, Japan.


E 11-14Ac : 20.2 *
Z 11-14Ac : 8.7 *
14Ac : 3.3 (Sugie et al., 1977)

Components marked with * are involved in attraction.


of egg:
Trichogramma sp. (Trichogrammatidae)

of larva:
Campoplex homonae (Sonan) (Ichneumonidae)
Diadegma sp. (Ichneumonidae)
Meteorus adoxophyesi Minamikawa (Braconidae)
Apanteles adoxophyesi Minamikawa (Braconidae)
Bracon adoxophyesi Minamikawa (Braconidae)

Besides Archips xylosteana, Archips endoi and Archips fuscocupreana , which are already dealt with elsewhere, the following species of Archips have been recorded from apple in Japan.

1. Archips nigricaudana (Walsingham)

Archips nigricaudana male; male genitalia A. nigricaudana ; female gen. A. nigricaudana
Moths are generally lighter in colour than those of Archips breviplicana ; apex not produced in males.
Genitalia: In Archips nigricaudana the sacculus of the male genitalia has a glabrous free termination, while it is densely spined in Archips breviplicana.
The cestum of the female genitalia is long (almost reaching to the antrum) while it is short in Archips breviplicana .

Host plants are Malus pumila, Pyrus simony, Morus sp., Castanopsis sp., Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica, Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, Lespedeze bicolor, Corylus heterophylla, Diospyros kaki, Abies holophylla and Salix sp.
Distribution: Russia: Primorsk; Korea, Japan.

2. Archips ingentana (Christoph)

Archips ingentana male; Archips ingentana female; male genitalia A. ingentana ; female gen. A. ingentana
Median fasciae on forewings are broad at dorsum.
Genitalia: In this species the termination of the sacculus is spined, as it is in Archips breviplicana. It is however also provided with a median thorn.
The cestum of the female genitalia reaches almost to the middle of the ductus bursae and broadens strongly basally. The sterigma is also large with a strong median process and large, well sclerotized distal lobes, but the antrum is smaller than in Archips breviplicana.

Host plants are Abies firma, Acer, Artemisia, Cerasus, Disporum similacinum, Filipendula, Fragaria, Houttuynia cordata, Lonicera, Malus pumila, Petasites japonicus, Polygonum, Prunus salicina, Pyrus simony, Quercus serrata, Urtica thunbergia.
Distribution: Japan: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu; N. Korea; China: Manchuria; Russia: S. Kuril Is., Primorsk, S. Sakhalin